Cricket is considered as one of the most complicated sports. This is not because of how it is played, but because of the kind of rules and laws it comprises of. Take a dismissal through Catch for example. It involves a contact between bat and the ball before a fielder catches it. Now the contact may be the slightest one, but the value is the same – an entire wicket. Thus, the responsibility of making sure that these laws are followed is under the aegis of the Umpire. They are the ones who make sure that the cricket is always remains a gentlemen’s game. Umpires receive a lot of respect from the cricketers, unlike football where referees are not treated ethically. Here is a list of cricket umpire signals used during matches.
The out signal is used by the umpire whenever a batsman is dismissed in one of the 10 possible ways. The umpire signals out by lifting up the index finger of one of the hands in the air. However, in cases of LBW, caught behind and obstructing the field, the umpire can only signal out if the bowling team appeals. The umpire can declare an appeal as not-out by shaking his head or saying the words ‘not-out’ verbally.
According to the cricket rules, the bowler is bound to land his front foot behind the popping crease while bowling. The delivery in which he/she lands the leg ahead of the crease is illegitimate and declared as a ’no ball’. Umpire signals a no ball by holding one arm horizontally at almost 90°. However, ball a no ball is also signaled if the bowler delivers the ball directly above the waist of the batsman without bouncing it on the pitch. No ball is an extra and doesn’t count as one of the six deliveries of an over.
In limited formats of cricket (i.e. ODIs and T20s), after bowling a no-ball, the batsman is provided with a free-hit. Free-hit is the ball bowled just after a no ball and gives all the license to the batsman to hit the ball without any fear. This is because in a free hit, batsman’s methods of dismissals reduce from eight to four, which are: run out, obstructing the field, handling the ball and hitting the ball twice. AS the later 3 dismissals are extremely rare, batsman can only be dismissed by a run out. The umpire signals a free-hit by circling his arm over his/her head.
A wide ball is an illegal delivery bowled in cricket whenever the ball is bowled outside the reach of the batsman. This reach is defined by a line marked on the pitch. A ball can be wide even if the ball bounces way over batsman’s head. A wide Ball is not counted and adds an extra run in the batting team’s total. The umpire signals wide by spreading out both his hands horizontally.
A batsman earns 4 runs whenever he/she hits the a ball across the boundary (by bouncing at least once before reaching the fence). The batsman signals a four by waving his arm back and forth in front of his chest/waist.
A batsman gets six runs whenever he/she hits the ball out of the boundary, without the ball landing on the ground before. The umpire signals six by raising both his arms vertically above his head.
The batting team get byes if they pick runs without the bat hitting the ball or any body part of the batsman. The umpire signals byes by raising one oh palms vertically above his head.
The batting team gets leg byes when they get runs whenever the ball misses the bat and hits any body part of the batsman (other than his fingers or batting gloves). The umpire signals leg byes by taking his leg midway in the air by touching the knees.
In Test and ODI cricket, a bowler can bowl 2 bouncers in an over. Whereas in T20 cricket, the bowler is allowed to bowl only one. The number of bouncers in an over exceeds the necessary limit, the batting team is rewarded with a no ball. Hence, the umpire has to make the players on the field about the first and the second bouncer bowled. It is signalled by putting the arm on the shoulder and raising one or two fingers, according to the bouncer number.
Television / 3rd Umpire
Whenever both the on-field umpires are not clear with any decision regarding a dismissal, they can move forward the decision to the TV umpire who has a better look of the game with the available technology. The umpire signals it by making a box shape in the air, replicating a TV box.
A dead ball is declared whenever the ball is to be bowled but dues to some interruption, the bowler doesn’t bowl. The cricket umpire signals that a delivery has been Dead by crossing and uncrossing his wrists just below his waist. The same signal is also used whenever a decision is termed as not out while taking DRS review.
While running between the wickets, the batsman has to make sure that his/her bat reaches ahead of the crease to complete one run. If the batsman fails to do so and the umpire notices it, umpire has the authority to declare ‘short-run’ by cancelling out that run from the scoreboard. The Cricket Umpire signals a ‘Short run’ by tapping his near shoulder with the fingers.
Penalty runs are extra runs given to the batting or the fielding team whenever a law of cricket is breached by the opposition. This breach includes damaging the pitch even after a warning, obstructing the batsman or waste time deliberately. Batting team gets Penalty runs whenever the ball touches wicket keeper’s helmet as it hinders the runs of the batting team. Placing one arm on the opposite shoulder indicates penalty runs to the fielding team.
Whenever a DRS (review) is taken by any of the teams, and decision stands not out, the umpire is subjected to signal TV umpire’s decision communicated to him by signalling it on the ground as well. If the on-field umpire’s decision doesn’t match with the actual decision and it has to be changed, the umpire has to signal revoking the decision. It is signalled by the umpire by crossing both the hands over his shoulders.
In limited format cricket, the fielding team has to follow certain norms on the field regarding the field placements. Powerplay was introduced in 2005 with the motive of giving fair opportunity to the batsman to score runs in the first 10 overs. This is signalled by the umpire by rotating his arm twice in a circular motion over his head As of today, powerplay applies:
- During the first 10 overs of an innings, when a maximum of 2 fielders are allowed outside the 30-yard circle.
- Between overs 11 and 40, when a maximum of 4 fielders are allowed outside the 30-yard circle.
- In the final 10 overs (41–50), when a maximum of 5 fielders will be allowed to field outside the 30-yard circle.
IN 2016, ICC declared that the umpires will have to give a soft signal before sending forward any decision to the TV umpire. This was done to ensure fairness to the game by having the on-field umpire’s call, in case the evidence for the third umpire is not enough. After signalling for the third umpire, the umpire has to declare out or not out somewhere between his chest and waist.
Whenever a new ball is taken by the fielding side, the umpire picks the ball and lift it to signal it to scorers as well as the batting team.
Test Cricket says that the last hour of a day’s play should have minimum 15 overs from the fielding side. Hence, the umpire signals towards his wrist watch to the fielding team, making them aware of the last hour.